Residential Wiring Risks

Since the introduction of electricity in homes, circa. 1910, various electrical wiring methods have been used. The main types can be  grouped into five separate categories. All wiring types if installed and maintained correctly can be safe and conforming to electrical standards. However, if not installed or maintained correctly, each has potential risks.

1910–1950: “Knob and tube”

Knob and tube (K&T) wiring was installed in virtually all houses from 1920 to 1950.  It incorporated single conductors run along the sides of the wooden framing. The conductors were supported by ceramic knobs and insulated from contact with wooden joists by ceramic tubes. Electrical splices (wire to wire connections) were done in free air, soldered and covered with insulating tape. The conductors were covered in flame-retardant cloth impregnated with rubber. The conductor quality was excellent, consisting of heavy gauge copper wire with a minimal number of soldered connections enroute to receptacles and lights. However there was no ground conductor. Thus the receptacles of knob-and-tube circuits were not grounded.

Risk in modern homes:

The safety concerns of knob-and-tube wiring are due to alterations or modifications of the original wiring.

  • UNGROUNDED RECEPTACLES: Original 2-prong ungrounded receptacles have often been exchanged for modern 3-prong receptacles, giving false impression of ground protection.
  • POOR CONNECTIONS: To meet the house electrical requirements, circuits are often found tapped to the knob-and-tube, likely done by the homeowner or persons not qualified as residential electricians. These add-on circuits can be most dangerous, resulting in hot-spots at the added connections.
  • INSULATION BREAKDOWN: If there has been “overfusing” (overrated fuses or breakers installed on the circuits) there can be insulation breakdown, as overfusing combined with overloading the circuits significantly raises the temperature of the conductors beyond their designed temperature limits, resulting in a fire hazard.

Inspection procedure:

An ESA inspection or a Master Electrician will check all of these above concerns to determine if the wiring is acceptable. Receptacles are inspected to assure that they are the correct type. The quality of the connections is determined by “voltage-drop testing” (an accurate method to determine if there are any poor connections enroute to the receptacles). The panels are checked for any signs of overfusing and the insulation is checked. If any of the above are found to be deficient, the knob-and-tube circuit is not acceptable and repairs are identified.

1950–1962: Ungrounded twin-conductor cable, NMD 1

Twin-conductor cable replaced knob-and tube in early 1950s due to ease of installation. Contained two insulated conductors wrapped in paper and black tar-based cloth casing. Originally contained no ground wire (NMD1), thus the receptacles were not grounded. The insulation temperature rating of this cable was 60°C. Grounded receptacles were not required until 1962.

Risk in modern homes:

As with knob-&-tube circuits, original 2-prong ungrounded receptacles have often been exchanged for modern 3-prong receptacles, giving false impression of ground protection. This is an easy check and an easy repair. Ground-fault circuit interruption (GFCI) receptacles or breakers can be installed, providing 3-prong receptacles with ground protection. Most insurance companies will not insure a home with Knob and Tube wiring.

1962–1984: Grounded twin-conductor cable, NMD 3 & 6

Ground conductors were required in residential cables in 1962. NMD 3 was introduced containing a ground conductor. Homes were now wired with modern, 3-prong outlets. As with NMD1, NMD3 had an insulation temperature rating of 60°C. Later NMD6 was introduced with an increased temperature rating of 75°C.

Risk in modern homes:

Many modern fixtures generate considerable heat inside the enclosure, particularly recessed lighting fixtures (pot light). A number of fires have been reported in these fixtures as a result of cables with low temperature rating. Since 1984 the electrical code requires that all ceiling fixtures be wired with a cable rated at 90°C. Cables rated at 60°C and 75°C are not suitable for modern fixtures. The house should be checked to confirm that these older cables are not used for modern lighting.

1965–1974: Aluminum branch circuit wiring.

Installed in the vast majority of homes during this period. Provided an inexpensive solution to escalated price of copper at that time.

Risk in Aluminum Wiring Connections:

Loose connections where aluminum meets copper have shown to develop over time. This results in very hazardous conditions, which often lead to fire. US Consumer Product Safety Commission reports that aluminum-wired homes are 55 times more likely to have one or more connections reach “Fire Hazard Conditions” than homes wired with copper only. The concern is not the cable, but the aluminum-copper connections.  Many insurance companies will not insure homes with ESA.  Some may require an ESA inspection prior to insuring property.

Inspection procedure:

The Electrical Safety Authority has received an increasing number of questions about the safety of aluminum wiring. In particular, purchasers or owners of homes built from the mid 1960’s until the late 1970’s with aluminum wiring are finding that many insurers will not provide or renew insurance coverage on such properties unless the wiring is inspected and repaired or replaced as necessary and this work is inspected by ESA and a copy of the certificate of inspection is provided to the insurer. In some cases the insurer may require replacement of the aluminum wiring with copper wiring. Check with your insurance company for their requirements.

1984–Present: Modern NMD90 cable

The primary cable used today for the wiring of homes is NMD90 (formerly NMD7). Modern NMD90 cable contains two conductors and a ground enclosed in a PVC jacket. It is an excellent all-round indoor cable suitable for modern lighting. It has an insulation temperature rating of 90°C.

Risk in using Wrong Types of Cables:

The cable is designed for home wiring in dry locations only. Not designed for outdoor, underground or wet locations. The home should be checked to confirm that it has not been installed in incorrect locations.

There are always Consumer Alerts for various products, fixtures or failures of items.  Read our Consumer Alerts Page

Electrical Service Boxes

DIY Electrical Problems in Home 

Self Test GFCI Receptacles

Aluminum Wiring in your Home